词 的 年:
在日常使用, 文字是沟通断言的有用工具, 的想法, 愿望, 和不确定性. But they can also become vehicles for ideological conflict.
这就是发生的事情 疫苗 in 2021. 有希望的医疗解决方案 流感大流行 that upended our lives in 2020 also became a political argument 和 source of division. The biggest science story of our time quickly became the biggest debate in our country, 这两个故事的中心是 疫苗.
Hopes for cures 和 treatments of COVID-19 began as soon as the disease began to spread. 一种新型疫苗的研究含有 信使核糖核酸, or 信使核糖核酸, genetic material rather than an inactivated form 的 virus was accelerated. After decades of studies conducted for application to diseases such as influenza, 埃博拉病毒, 和狂犬病, 这种新型的信使核糖核酸疫苗 SARS-CoV-2 病毒迅速发展, 测试, 并被广泛使用, 第一批疫苗已经在美国实施.S. 2020年12月.
疫苗的使用会引发 免疫反应 in an entirely new way required that Merriam-Webster revise 和 exp和 its entry for the word, 该公司在5月份做了什么. 的定义, which formerly read “a preparation of killed microorganisms, 活减毒的生物, or living fully virulent organisms that is administered to produce or artificially increase immunity to a particular disease,”改为:
1 : a preparation that is administered (as by injection) to stimulate the body's 免疫反应 against a specific infectious agent or disease: such as
a : an antigenic preparation of a typically inactivated or attenuated (see ATTENUATED sense 2) pathogenic agent (such as a bacterium or virus) or one of its components or products (such as a protein or toxin)
b : a preparation of genetic material (such as a str和 of synthesized 信使核糖核酸) that is used by the cells 的 body to produce an antigenic substance (such as a fragment of virus spike protein)
Interest in the definition of this word was intense in the past year: lookups for 疫苗 较2020年同比增长601%. But interest in the word has been high since the start 的 COVID-19 流感大流行, 就资金问题进行了大量讨论, 发展, 测试, 和 ultimate distribution 的 疫苗s occurring in 2020. 单词的突出 疫苗 in our lives in this era becomes even more starkly clear when we compare 2021 to 2019, a period in which lookups for the word increased 1048%.
查找的 疫苗, 全年都很高, 8月份上涨了535%, long after discussions about 疫苗s began taking place in the press 和 widespread distribution in parts 的 world were well underway. A number of stories in August show that discussions about policy, 批准, 和 vaccination rates—rather than the 疫苗 itself—sent people to the 字典. 在这段时间, New York 和 California instituted 疫苗 m和ates for health care workers; a federal m和ate 是一个nounced for nursing home staff; an announcement of plans for booster shots for the general public in the U.S. prompted condemnations of inequities in 疫苗 distribution; 和 full FDA 批准 for Pfizer’s 疫苗 was granted.
This new higher rate of lookups since August has remained stable throughout the late fall, 表现出的不仅仅是非常高的兴趣 疫苗,但 one that started high 和 grew during the course of 2021.
疫苗 来自于拉丁语中“母牛”的意思， vacca, because the term was initially used to refer to inoculation using doses of 牛痘 that, it was discovered, protect humans against smallpox. This word is a relatively recent one in English, dating back to the 1880s. 看到更多的 疫苗是如何工作的.
这个词 疫苗 在2021年，不仅仅是关于医学吗. For many, the word symbolized a possible return to the lives we led before the 流感大流行. But it was also at the center of debates about personal choice, 政治面貌, 专业的规定, 学校安全, 医疗不平等, 还有更多.
Few words can express so much about one moment in time.
The violent events of January 6th led to a striking spike in lookups for 起义, driven by headlines like this: “Military Joint Chiefs condemn 'sedition 和 起义' at US Capitol" (CNN, 1/13/21). 另一个较小的上涨发生在7月份.S. 众议院特别委员会就此事举行了听证会.
The intensity 的 news coverage 和 interest in this story, 再加上政治上的不确定性, 法律, 和犯罪的影响, made the definition of this word the object of sudden interest. 这个时候查到的其他单词也包括在内 政变 和 防暴,但 起义 became the word most used by some politicians 和 the press.
的定义 起义 is "an act or instance of revolting against civil authority or an established government."
这个词 毅力 shot to the top of our lookups in February after NASA’s Mars rover “毅力” l和ed safely on the red planet on February 18th. The rover got its name thanks to student Alex和er Mather, the seventh grader who submitted the winning entry to NASA’s "Name the Rover" essay contest. The name, chosen out of 28,000 entries from K-12 students from every U.S. 州和领地, is apt: 毅力 traveled almost 300 million miles over seven months—a remarkable journey.
这个词 毅力 is defined as “continued effort to do or achieve something despite difficulties, 失败, or opposition; the action or condition or an instance of persevering; steadfastness.它最终来自拉丁语 persevērā再保险, meaning "to persist in a course of action or an attitude in spite of opposition, keep on.”
查找 醒来 saw dramatic increases several times in 2021—first in April (they were up 1,4月6日373%), 5月上升1个百分点,4日达到279%), 6月(24日上涨354%). But it was during November’s election that the most dramatic increases occurred: lookups for 醒来 were up 4,303% on November 8th in response to use 的 word in election coverage.
的使用 醒来 drawing interest is a new one, compared to the word’s historic use as the past tense form of 之后:源自非裔美国英语(AAE)，新的用途 醒来 is defined in our 字典 as “aware of 和 actively attentive to important facts 和 issues (especially issues of racial 和 social justice).新用法的语义是, 然而, 不断发展的, 和 it’s increasingly used as a general pejorative for anyone who is or appears to be politically left-leaning; the spikes in lookups mentioned above all correlate to instances in which reactions to racial 和 social injustice were dismissed as being “醒来.”
的新词 醒来lash 将这个贬义的用法与这个词结合起来 强烈反对 to pin Republican political gains on a perceived adverse reaction to “醒来” politics.
(看到更多 的历史和使用 醒来.)
游牧Photo: Photo Courtesy of Searchlight Pictures 2020 20th Century Studios All Rights Reserved
当这部电影 游牧l和 snagged three of this year’s Oscar Awards on April 25th, 包括最佳影片, 最佳女主角, 和最佳导演, 很多人求助于韦氏词典.Com来查找这个单词 游牧-足够多的人使得搜索量上升了4625%.
游牧 can refer specifically to a member of a people who have no fixed residence but who move from place to place, 通常是季节性的并且在一个明确的区域内, 或者更广泛地说，是指那些四处游荡的人. 游牧 comes from the Latin word meaning “member of a w和ering pastoral people,” 和 ultimately from the Greek verb that means "to pasture, 放牧(群)."
查找 基础设施 spiked 677% on April 7th, following President Biden’s announcement of his $2.3万亿美元计划. Subsequent spikes came in June with the announcement of a bipartisan agreement in congress on the legislation, 和 in November following former President Trump’s comments disparaging Republican legislators who voted for the bill 和 again after President Biden’s signing ceremony.
公众对这一任期的持续关注是显而易见的 关于什么构成的争论 基础设施 和 whether the word can be used to refer only to physical building 和 improvements to such things as roads 和 bridges, 与提案的其他内容相反, such as broadb和 internet 发展 和 elder care funding. 争论的焦点是这个词本身的定义.
的拉丁词根 基础设施 简单地说就是“在结构下面或下面”.这个词是从法语传入英语的, 在英语中是一个相对年轻的词, 可以追溯到20世纪中期. It was initially widely used in the context of building military bases, 铁路, 和 airfields for use by NATO forces following World War II.
查找 蝉 春季和夏季的大部分时间都很高吗, as adult members of Brood X (as the particular group of periodic 蝉s emerging in 2021 was called) made their way to the Earth’s surface, their larvae having been living underground for the past 17 years. 5月和6月的搜索量尤其明显, 当365买球平台看到增加了1,442%和264%, 分别.
这个词 蝉 is defined as “any of a family (Cicadidae) of homopterous insects which have a stout body, 宽钝头, 还有大而透明的翅膀,，然后从拉丁语转到英语, 通过新拉丁语的方式, Latin as used since the end 的 medieval period especially in scientific description 和 classification.
九里Photo: Photo by Heather Harvey / Scripps / ESPN Images
九里 7月8日，搜索量激增, after Zaila Avant-garde spelled it correctly to win the Scripps National Spelling Bee.
365买球平台定义 九里 as “a genus of tropical Asiatic 和 Australian trees (family Rutaceae) having pinnate leaves 和 flowers with imbricated petals.”
All champion spellers study etymology in order to know the patterns of spellings in English. Zaila表现出她认识到这一点 九里 是一个 齐名的人, 基于名字的词, by asking the judges at the Bee: "Does this word contain the English name Murray, 哪一个可能是喜剧演员的名字?"
这个词 comes from New Latin, 和 was named not for Bill Murray,但 for Johan A. 默里，18世纪瑞典植物学家. (Zaila有 来自比尔·默里的意外祝贺 在《365买球平台》中.)
The Bee always brings fresh attention to rarely looked-up words in the 字典, 和 year-to-year comparisons aren’t useful when discussing words that typically get very few clicks per year. 可以肯定地说 九里 has never had so many lookups as in the days following the Bee, 和 may never again.
Cisgender saw dramatic spikes in lookups twice in 2021: the first time was in May, 当查找量增加5,836% following the release of a CIA recruitment video in which a CIA member used the word to describe herself; the second in October, 当查找量上升20,811% after a student’s op-ed in a college newspaper used the word. Both events drew condemnation from those on the political right, 以及对这个术语本身的好奇.
Cisgender 定义为“的?, 有关, or being a person whose gender identity corresponds with the sex the person had or was identified as having at birth.这个词与 变性人, 和 dates, per currently available evidence, to the mid-1990s. 看到更多的 的历史和使用 cisgender.
当克利夫兰的美国联盟棒球队选择 监护人 作为它在7月的新名称，查找这个单词 《365买球》 上涨了3142%.
The team considered more than a thous和 names before settling on 监护人 作为其备受批评的替代品 印度人 绰号. The new name alludes to eight statuary 《365买球》s that flank both sides of Clevel和’s Hope Memorial Bridge. 交通守护者雕像有43英尺高, 比如希腊的赫尔墨斯(旅行之神), among other things; his Roman counterpart is Mercury) they bear winged helmets on their heads.
这个词的相关意义 《365买球》 here is “one that guards; custodian.这个词来自中古英语 gardein or wardein，来源 监狱长. 这两个词最终都来自英法语 典狱官”,来保护.”